Polygenic effects of Y chromosome should be independently included in analytical model only for phenotypes of men because of its absence in women and thus absent genetic correlation between women and men.
Exaggerated mandibles are only developed in males; females differences between sex linked and sex influenced inheritance in Provo develop exaggerated mandibles. Later the same year, a paper in Evolution also came to the same conclusions about sexual antagonism in relation to sex-limited genes. Without these genes, organisms would be forced to settle on an average trait value, incurring costs on both sexes.
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Sex differences in disease genetics: evidence, evolution, and detection. Females with mutation of the gene can have chromosomes of XY. Genetic effects can then be assessed by sex. This makes it possible, then, that the rapid evolution seen in sex-biased genes is not an inherent property of their sex bias, but a property of some other feature.
It was also found, however, that females found in the populations of males with exaggerated mandibles had lower fitness as determined by lifetime reproductive success, LRS relative to the fitness of females in populations with males with smaller mandibles.
However, dissection of genetic factors differences between sex linked and sex influenced inheritance in Provo with sex has been limitedly explored to examine sex-influenced traits. The American Naturalist. Sex-limited genes are also responsible for some female beetles' inability to grow exaggerated mandibles,  research that is discussed in detail later in this article.
Yang J. Furthermore, the burden of reduced power is dramatically improved as emerging technologies for sequencing DNA are in rapid progress. This highlights the importance of sexual conflict to evolutionbecause it cannot simply be defused by sex-limited trait expression.
In humans, the process of X chromosome inactivation occurs in the beginning stages of development which is one of the main reasons why this topic has been challenging to study.
November Age- and gender-dependent heterogeneous proportion of variation explained by SNPs in quantitative traits reflecting human health. Genomic imprinting for example, silencing of one parental allele by DNA methylation , for which sex-limited imprinting has been proposed to resolve intralocus conflict.
Their underlying assumptions are violated by ignoring interactions of sex with genetic factors and heterogeneous genetic effects by sex.