All authors critically revised the paper and read and approved the final manuscript. Conclusion These results support the recent theoretical model that evolution of TSD is facilitated by sex-specific fitness benefits of developmental temperatures due to bimaturism. Proc R Soc B.
Recent studies Bergeron et al. Crews, David, and James Bull. Pieau, Claude. Results indicated that in the second season, during which most lizards became reproductive, males raised at intermediate temperatures had the greatest reproductive success of all the males, while females at extreme temperatures had more offspring than those raised at intermediate temperatures.
While TSD has been observed in many reptile and fish species, the genetic differences between sexes and molecular mechanisms of TSD have not been disclosed. Developmental Biology. Aromatase helps to convert sex steroids, a group of hormones that evolutionary advantages and disadvantages of temperature-dependent sex determination in Scottsdale sex development and reproduction, from male sex hormones androgens to female sex hormones estrogens.
Search term. Researchers have documented TSD in a wide range of species, and they continue to investigate how such a sex determining system has evolved.
Spencer and Janzen found that hatchlings from mixed-sex nests were less energy efficient and grew less than their same-sex counterparts incubated in single-sex producing temperatures. The scope of the model for other reptiles, however, requires further research.
Printer-friendly version PDF version. Recent studies Bergeron et al. Sign up for our email newsletter.
An alternative hypothesis of adaptive significance was proposed by Bulmer and Bull in  and supported by the work of Pen et al. Third, we studied the sex differences in mortality rates, which may be enhanced in GSD by at least two mechanisms.
However, in the bipotential gonads of those turtles raised at male-promoting temperatures, Sox9 expression was retained in the medullary sex cords destined to become Sertoli cells Spotila et al. The intermediate temperature normally produces fifty percent females, and the extreme temperatures produce all female offspring.
Some other conditions, e. Full size image.