Taken together, these studies highlight a possible neuroprotective effect for estrogens. In a prospective study of adolescents, negative inferential styles at baseline interacted with negative events over a 5-month follow-up period to predict depression and anhedonia specifically in females [ 34 ].
Serotonin and norepinephrine are represented together for simplicity. Chronic stress induces a selective decrease in AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic excitation at hippocampal temporoammonic-CA1 synapses. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. However, conflicting results have emerged from studies that have considered sex differences see [ ].
It was challenging to find data on women to conduct the review.
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In a prospective study of adolescents, negative inferential styles at baseline interacted with negative events over a 5-month follow-up period to predict depression and anhedonia specifically in females [ 34 ].
Rapid antidepressant action and restoration of excitatory synaptic strength after chronic stress by negative modulators of alpha5-containing GABAA receptors. Phillips J, Sharpe L, Matthey S Rates of depressive and anxiety disorders in a residential mother-infant unit for unsettled infants.
There is also increased interest in addressing context in reviews, for example, by incorporating qualitative evidence about who may or may not be affected by particular health interventions, in what ways, and why, including relevant cultural and historical conditions [ 6364 ].
Stress induces atrophy of apical dendrites of hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons. Several groups are engaged in work to increase the quality and applicability of systematic reviews and in particular, to address issues of health equity [ 6 , 60 ].
The brain regions discussed here are profoundly interconnected, so sex differences in one area are likely to affect downstream regions. Kelley SP, Mittleman G. J Comp Neurol.