Genome-wide misexpression of X-linked versus autosomal genes associated with hybrid male sterility. Charlesworth, B In many sexually reproducing plant species and some animals all individuals are essentially alike in their gender condition. In mammals, females are said to be homogametic because all their gametes contain an X chromosome.
Transposable element family with transcriptionally active Y-linked copies in the white campion, Silene latifolia.
Biolog Rev17 : 46— These strata likely reflect chromosomal inversions or other rearrangements reducing recombination. Muller, HJ
Sex inheritance and sex chromosomes in plants are strikingly similar to those in animals. It is a disease caused in female individuals due to the absence of one X-chromosome. The spread of alleles beneficial in one sex but not in the other antagonistic pleiotropy similarly depends on linkage Charlesworth and Charlesworth, ; Rice, Parker, JS Sex determination in Actinidia.
In the absence of useful chromosome banding patterns that identify regions, single-copy anonymous markers can also be useful for mapping in combination with X and y chromosomes and sex determination in Darwin deletions Donnison et al, Additionally, an abnormal number of sex chromosomes aneuploidy may be present, such as Turner's syndromein which a single X chromosome is present, and Klinefelter's syndromein which two X chromosomes and a Y chromosome are present, XYY syndrome and XXYY syndrome.
Indeed, males generally suffer for having just one copy of each gene. Bainbridge, David. Without the ability to isolate alleles, selection cannot effectively act upon them. Human genome. Columbia University Press: New York.